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Igarashi Miho M Center for Environment, Health and Field Sciences, Chiba University, Kashiwanoha 6-2-1, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-0882, - - 2014
People have been aware of essential oils, which are derived from plants, for a long time. Recently, we have become interested in physiological and subjective effects of daily exposure to essential oils. The primary aim of the present study was to clarify effects of olfactory stimulation with rose or orange ...
Kitajima Michio M Université Catholique de Louvain, Pôle de Recherche en Gynécologie, Institut de Recherche Expérimentale et Clinique, Brussels, Belgium; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Nagasaki, - - 2014
To evaluate the effects of endometriomas on the regulation of early follicular development. Histologic analysis of prospectively collected biopsy samples. Research unit in a university hospital. Women <40 years of age who have ovarian endometriomas. Biopsy of healthy cortex from ovaries affected by endometriomas (≤4 cm) and contralateral ovaries without ...
Kirilov Milen - - 2013
Signaling between kisspeptin and its receptor, G-protein-coupled receptor 54 (Gpr54), is now recognized as being essential for normal fertility. However, the key cellular location of kisspeptin-Gpr54 signaling is unknown. Here we create a mouse with a GnRH neuron-specific deletion of Gpr54 to assess the role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. ...
Good Deborah J DJ Department of Human Nutrition, Foods and Exercise, Virginia Tech University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. - - 2013
Nescient helix-loop-helix 2 (NHLH2/NSCL2) is a neuronal transcription factor originally thought to be involved in neuronal development and childhood neuroblastomas. Accumulating evidence has since identified roles for NHLH2 in adult phenotypes of obesity and fertility. We summarize these findings here and attempt to link genotype with phenotype in mouse models ...
Nieuwenhuis Bart P S - - 2013
Basidiomycete fungi perform fertilizations by incorporation of nuclei into a monokaryotic mycelium to establish a dikaryon. The dikaryon cannot incorporate another type of nucleus, but can still act as a nucleus donor in a dikaryon-monokaryon (di-mon) mating, known as the Buller phenomenon. Previously, it has been observed that: (1) in ...
Isler Karin - - 2013
An artificial selection experiment demonstrates that large-brained guppies learn better, but produce less offspring and have smaller guts. A close link between brain size and fertility suggests that energetic trade-offs play an important role in brain size evolution.
Baxa Monika M Laboratory of Cell Regeneration and Plasticity, Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics, v.v.i., AS CR, Libechov, Czech Republic Faculty of Science, Department of Cell Biology, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech - - 2013
Some promising treatments for Huntington's disease (HD) may require pre-clinical testing in large animals. Minipig is a suitable species because of its large gyrencephalic brain and long lifespan. To generate HD transgenic (TgHD) minipigs encoding huntingtin (HTT)1-548 under the control of human HTT promoter. Transgenesis was achieved by lentiviral infection ...
Kuceyeski Amy - - 2012
A recently developed measure of structural brain connectivity disruption, the loss in connectivity (LoCo), is adapted for studies in alcohol dependence. LoCo uses independent tractography information from young healthy controls to project the location of white matter (WM) microstructure abnormalities in alcohol-dependent versus nondependent individuals onto connected gray matter (GM) ...
Paul A P - - 2012
Neuronal plasticity deficits underlie many of the cognitive problems seen in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). We have developed a ferret model showing that early alcohol exposure leads to a persistent disruption in ocular dominance (OD) plasticity. Recently, we showed that this deficit could be reversed by overexpression of serum ...
Schacht Joseph P JP Center for Drug and Alcohol Programs, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, 29425, USA. - - 2013
A comprehensive understanding of the neurobiology of alcohol cue reactivity is critical in identifying the neuropathology of alcohol use disorders (AUD) and developing treatments that may attenuate alcohol craving and reduce relapse risk. Functional neuroimaging studies have identified many brain areas in which alcohol cues elicit activation. However, extant studies ...
Gilpin Nicholas W NW Department of Physiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA. - - 2012
The central amygdala (CeA) is uniquely situated to function as an interface between stress- and addiction-related processes. This brain region has long been attributed an important role in aversive (e.g., fear) conditioning, as well as the negative emotional states that define alcohol dependence and withdrawal. The CeA is the major ...
Marty Vincent N VN Division of Oral Biology & Medicine, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1668, USA. - - 2012
Chronic and excessive alcohol drinking lead to alcohol dependence and loss of control over alcohol consumption, with serious detrimental health consequences. Chronic alcohol exposure followed by protracted withdrawal causes profound alterations in the brain reward system that leads to marked changes in reinforcement mechanisms and motivational state. These long-lasting neuroadaptations ...
Granato Alberto - - 2012
Exposure to alcohol in utero is a well known cause of mental retardation in humans. Using experimental models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, it has been demonstrated that cortical pyramidal neurons and their projections are profoundly and permanently impaired. Yet, how the functional features of these cells are modified and ...
Colrain Ian M - - 2012
Stimuli presented during sleep can produce an evoked EEG delta wave referred to as a K-complex. These responses occur when large numbers of cortical cells burst fire in a synchronized manner. Large amplitude synchronized scalp responses require that the CNS contain large numbers of healthy neurons that are interconnected with ...
Kroener Sven S School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas, United States of America. - - 2012
In the present study, we used a mouse model of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure to examine how CIE alters the plasticity of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In acute slices obtained either immediately or 1-week after the last episode of alcohol exposure, voltage-clamp recording of excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs) ...
Folgueira Mónica M Research Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, UCL, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, - - 2012
Although the mechanisms underlying brain patterning and regionalization are very much conserved, the morphology of different brain regions is extraordinarily variable across vertebrate phylogeny. This is especially manifest in the telencephalon, where the most dramatic variation is seen between ray-finned fish, which have an everted telencephalon, and all other vertebrates, ...
Choi Myung-Jin - - 2011
Culinary use of the pungent spices has potential health benefits including a reduction in food intake. Pungent spices often contain ingredients that activate members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family A1 and evoke pain from capsaicin-sensitive somatosensory neurons. TRPA1 channel have also been identified on cranial visceral afferent neurons ...
Bajgar Jiri - - 2010
Tabun belongs to the most toxic nerve agents. Its mechanism of action is based on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition at the peripheral and central nervous systems. Therapeutic countermeasures comprise administration of atropine with cholinesterase reactivators able to reactivate the inhibited enzyme. Reactivation of AChE is determined mostly biochemically without specification of ...
Ye Jianxin - - 2010
Ischaemic encephalopathy (IE) is a debilitating condition resulting from stroke that can lead to impaired learning and memory related to damage of cholinergic neurons in the hippocampus. The present study used an animal model of IE to test the hypothesis that treatment with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) can reduce ...
Zhou Z-W - - 2011
Neuronal cell death induced by anaesthetics in the developing brain was evident in previous pre-clinical studies. However, the neuronal cell types involved in anaesthesia-induced neuronal cell death remains elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate glutamatergic, GABAergic, cholinergic and dopaminergic neuronal cell apoptosis induced by anaesthetic exposure in ...
Chen Li L Department of Genetics and Developmental Biology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut 06030-6403, - - 2010
Mammalian forebrain cholinergic neurons are composed of local circuit neurons in the striatum and projection neurons in the basal forebrain. These neurons are known to arise from a common pool of progenitors that primarily resides in the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE). However, little is known about the genetic programs that ...
Pirchl Michael - - 2010
Hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHcy) has been identified as a cardiovascular risk factor for neurodegenerative brain diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of short (5 months) or long (15 months) HHcy in Sprague–Dawley rats in vivo. Short- and long-term HHcy differentially affected spatial memory as tested in ...
Luo Feng - - 2011
Cholinergic modulation is essential for many brain functions and is an indispensable component of the prevalent models attempting to understand the neural mechanism responsible for learning-induced auditory plasticity. Unlike the cholinergic basal forebrain, the cholinergic pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) has received little attention. This study was designed to confirm whether ...
Mednikova Yu S - - 2010
Studies of living sensorimotor cortex slices showed that activatory spike responses to microiontophoretic application of acetylcholine depend on the spontaneous activity frequency of the neurons. Changes in the spontaneous activity level led to changes in the functional properties of dendrites and the extent of the cholinergic response. It is suggested ...
Figueiró M - - 2010
The goal of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) used to treat Alzheimer's patients is an improvement in cholinergic transmission. While currently available AChEIs have limited success, a huge impediment to the development of newer ones is access to the relevant brain areas. Promnesic, anti-amnesic and AChEI properties were identified in a standardized ...
Schäble Sandra - - 2012
The neurokinin receptors (NK-R), NK(2) - and NK(3) -R, have been implicated in behavioral processes, but apparently in opposite ways: while NK(2) -R agonism disrupts memory and has anxiogenic-like action, NK(3) -R agonists facilitate memory and display anxiolytic-like effects. Systemic application of NK(2) -R antagonists block the release of acetylcholine ...
Pape Hans-Christian - - 2010
The behavioral expression of fear ranges from active, cognitive responses to passive, freezing-like reactions. In this issue of Neuron, Gozzi, Jain, and colleagues suggest that neurons in the central amygdala orchestrate output signals toward either the brainstem or cholinergic basal forebrain and thereby can shift fear reactions from passive to ...
Anzalone Steven S Department of Psychology, Behavioral Neuroscience Program, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY 13902, - - 2010
Although the key neuropathology associated with diencephalic amnesia is lesions to the thalamus and/or mammillary bodies, functional deactivation of the hippocampus and associated cortical regions also appear to contribute to the memory dysfunction. For example, there is loss of forebrain cholinergic neurons and alterations in stimulated acetylcholine (ACh) levels in ...
Dugger Brittany N BN Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Jacksonville, FL 32224, - - 2010
Lewy bodies (LBs), the pathological hallmark of Lewy body disease (LBD), contain α-synuclein, as well as other proteins. In this study, we examined the relationship of α-synuclein to two rate-limiting enzymes in neurotransmitter synthesis, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). Double-labeling immunohistochemistry for α-synuclein and TH revealed TH immunoreactivity ...
Hammond R R Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA. - - 2011
GPR30 is a novel, membrane-bound, G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (Filardo et al., 2002; Prossnitz et al., 2008). We hypothesize that GPR30 may mediate effects of estradiol (E2) on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and cognitive performance. Recently we showed that G-1, a selective GPR30 agonist, enhances the rate of acquisition on ...
Drexler Berthold - - 2010
General anaesthesia is an important measure in the treatment of patients suffering from organophosphorus intoxication. The intravenous anaesthetic etomidate seems to be well suited for this purpose because of its stable haemodynamics. Here we raise the question whether the anaesthetic properties of etomidate are altered by cholinergic overstimulation and by ...
Hamada Satoko - - 2010
Cholinergic projections to auditory system are vital for coupling arousal with sound processing. Systematic search with in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry indicated that the ventral nucleus of the medial geniculate body and the nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus constituted cholinergic synaptic sites in the brainstem auditory system, ...
Thorn Catherine A - - 2010
How the cholinergic and dopaminergic systems of the striatum interact and how these interface with the massive neocortical input to the striatum are classic questions of cardinal interest to neurology and psychiatry. In this issue of Neuron, Ding and colleagues show that a key to these puzzles lies in the ...
Granic Ivica - - 2010
Amyloid-beta (Abeta) is toxic to neurons and such toxicity is - at least in part - mediated via the NMDA receptor. Calpain, a calcium dependent cystein protease, is part of the NMDA receptor-induced neurodegeneration pathway, and we previously reported that inhibition of calpain prevents excitotoxic lesions of the cholinergic nucleus ...
Bhargava Neelima - - 2010
A very small population of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactive cells is observed in all layers of the adult hippocampus. This is the intrinsic source of the hippocampal cholinergic innervation, in addition to the well-established septo-hippocampal cholinergic projection. This study aimed at quantifying and identifying the origin of this small population ...
Ros H H Medical Research Council Anatomical Neuropharmacology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TH, - - 2010
The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is critically involved in brain-state transitions that promote neocortical activation. In addition, the PPN is involved in the control of several behavioral processes including locomotion, motivation and reward, but the neuronal substrates that underlie such an array of functions remain elusive. Here we analyzed the physiological ...
Brambilla Dario - - 2010
REM sleep is suppressed during infection, an effect mimicked by the administration of cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1). In spite of this observation, brain sites and neurochemical systems mediating IL-1-induced suppression of REM sleep have not been identified. Cholinergic neurons in the brainstem laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) are part of ...
Geldenhuys Werner J - - 2010
The high affinity neuronal choline transporter (CHT1) is responsible for the uptake of choline into the pre-synaptic terminal of cholinergic neurons. Considering our past experience with modeling the blood-brain barrier choline transporter (BBBCHT) as drug delivery vector to the CNS, we investigated the 3-D-quantitative structure-activity relationship of the neuronal choline ...
Kalogiannis M M Department of Physiology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, - - 2010
Pharmacological studies of narcoleptic canines indicate that exaggerated pontine cholinergic transmission promotes cataplexy. As disruption of orexin (hypocretin) signaling is a primary defect in narcolepsy with cataplexy, we investigated whether markers of cholinergic synaptic transmission might be altered in mice constitutively lacking orexin receptors (double receptor knockout; DKO). mRNA for ...
Enjin Anders A Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, 751 23 Uppsala, - - 2010
Spinal cholinergic neurons are critical for motor function in both the autonomic and somatic nervous systems and are affected in spinal cord injury and in diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy. Using two screening approaches and in situ hybridization, we identified 159 genes expressed in ...
Asadollahi Ali A Department of Neurobiology, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA. - - 2010
The mechanisms by which the brain selects a particular stimulus as the next target for gaze are poorly understood. A cholinergic nucleus in the owl's midbrain exhibits functional properties that suggest its role in bottom-up stimulus selection. Neurons in the nucleus isthmi pars parvocellularis (Ipc) responded to wide ranges of ...
Kruger Jean-Leigh - - 2010
The current study describes, using immunohistochemical methods, the nuclear organization of the cholinergic, catecholaminergic and serotonergic systems within the brains of five microchiropteran species. For the vast majority of nuclei observed, direct homologies are evident in other mammalian species; however, there were several distinctions in the presence or absence of ...
Chen Su - - 2010
The most common age-dependent neurodegenerative disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease have become an urgent public health problem in the most areas of the world. The strategy of the current therapy focuses on increasing availability of brain acetylcholine concentration, and use of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors has become the main approach ...
Köhler C - - 2010
Cholinergic deafferentation of telencephalon is a major factor contributing to cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease. There is evidence that the degeneration of cholinergic fibers which innervate the cortex and hippocampus is due to the development of neurofibrillary tangles in the perikarya of origin. Neurofibrillary tangle formation has been modeled in ...
Henderson Zaineb - - 2010
In the central nervous system, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is present in a tetrameric form that is anchored to membranes via a proline-rich membrane anchor (PRiMA). Previously it has been found that principal cholinergic neurons in the brain express high concentrations of AChE enzymic activity at their neuronal membranes. The aim of ...
Deng Yun-Ping YP Department of Anatomy & Neurobiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 855 Monroe Avenue, Memphis, TN 38163, USA. - - 2010
Corticostriatal and thalamostriatal projections utilize glutamate as their neurotransmitter. Their influence on striatum is mediated, in part, by ionotropic AMPA-type glutamate receptors, which are heteromers composed of GluR1-4 subunits. While the cellular localization of AMPA-type subunits in the basal ganglia has been well characterized in rodents, the cellular localization of ...
Lecourtier Lucas - - 2010
Potentiated locomotor response to amphetamine has been associated with an increased sensitivity of the dopaminergic system and used as a model of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia in rodents. The hippocampus, through the subiculum, modulates dopamine transmission and hippocampal or subicular lesions potentiate the locomotor response to amphetamine. However, little ...
Gilman S - - 2010
Cholinergic projections to cerebral cortical and subcortical regions are decreased in Parkinson disease (PD), but not evaluated in the parkinsonian syndromes of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). We studied cholinergic innervation in these disorders as compared to age-appropriate normal control subjects. We used PET with [(11)C]PMP ...
Yamamoto Yui - - 2010
In the brain of Alzheimer's patients, the cholinergic neurons innervated the hippocampus and cerebral cortex degenerates before accumulation of beta-amyloid protein. Donepezil, a potent acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor is reported to rescue neurons from excitotoxic injury in culture. However, there is no evidence to confirm its neuroprotective effect on ACh neurons ...
McCoy P A PA Department of Neurobiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, - - 2010
Cholinergic innervation of hippocampus and cortex is required for some forms of learning and memory. Several reports have shown that activation of muscarinic m1 receptors induces a long-term depression (mLTD) at glutamate synapses in hippocampus and in several areas of cortex, including perirhinal and visual cortices. This plasticity likely contributes ...
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