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Newnham David - - 2014
A friend has just sent me a cutting from the paper. 'Chickens helping the elderly tackle loneliness,' it says. Is he trying to tell me something?
Olesen Mikkel V MV Research Laboratory for Stereology and Neuroscience, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospital, BispebjergBakke 23, DK-2400, Copenhagen, - - 2014
The neurobiological mechanisms underlying depression are not fully understood. Only a few previous studies have used validated stereological methods to test how stress and animal paradigms of depression affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis and whether antidepressant therapy can counteract possible changes in an animal model. Thus, in this study we applied ...
Sha Dujuan D Department of Emergency, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing 210008, Jiangsu Province, China; Department of Emergency, Drum Tower Clinical Medical School, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210008, Jiangsu Province, China; The State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Nanjing University, Nanjing, - - 2014
The mechanisms of ischemic stroke, a main cause of disability and death, are complicated. Ischemic stroke results from the interaction of various factors including oxidative stress, a key pathological mechanism that plays an important role during the acute stage of ischemic brain injury. This study demonstrated that cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated ...
Chaijale Nayla N NN The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 3416 Civic Ctr. Blvd., Philadelphia, PA, - - 2014
Stress is implicated in psychopathology characterized by cognitive dysfunction. Cognitive responses to stress are regulated by the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system. Because social stress is a prevalent human stressor, this study determined the impact of repeated social stress on the relationship between LC neuronal activity and behavior during the performance ...
Chawana R R School of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown, 2193 Johannesburg, South - - 2014
A previous study investigating potential adult hippocampal neurogenesis in microchiropteran bats failed to reveal a strong presence of this neural trait. As microchiropterans have a high-field metabolic rate and a small body mass, it is possible that capture/handling stress may lead to a decrease in the detectable presence of adult ...
Puglisi-Allegra Stefano S Dipartimento di Psicologia and Centro "Daniel Bovet," Sapienza Universita di Roma, via dei Marsi 78, 00185 Rome, Italy; Fondazione Santa Lucia, IRCCS, via del Fosso di Fiorano 65, 00143 Rome, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
Coping is the necessary outcome of any stressful situation and the major determinant of stress resilience. Coping strategies can be divided into two broad categories, based on the presence (active) or absence (passive) of attempts to act upon the stressor. The role of brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in coping behavior ...
Zhang Xiangnan X Department of Pharmacology; Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology of the Ministry of Health of China; Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Neurobiology; College of Pharmaceutical Sciences; Zhejiang University; Hangzhou, China; Collaborative Innovation Center for Infectious Diseases; Zhejiang University; Hangzhou, - - 2014
Transient cerebral ischemia leads to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. However, the contributions of ER stress to cerebral ischemia are not clear. To address this issue, the ER stress activators tunicamycin (TM) and thapsigargin (TG) were administered to transient middle cerebral artery occluded (tMCAO) mice and oxygen-glucose deprivation-reperfusion (OGD-Rep.)-treated neurons. Both ...
Joghataie Abdolreza - - 2014
We introduce dynamic plastic continuous neural network (DPCNN), which is comprised of neurons distributed in a nonlinear plastic medium where wire-like connections of neural networks are replaced with the continuous medium. We use finite element method to model the dynamic phenomenon of information processing within the DPCNNs. During the training, ...
Bondarenko E E School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia; Laboratory of Neuroimmunology, School of Psychology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
The prefrontal cortex is one of the key areas of the central mechanism of cardiovascular and respiratory control. Disinhibition of the prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex elicits tachypnoeic responses in anesthetized rats (Hassan et. al., J. Physiol. 591: 6069-6088, 2013). The current study examines the effects of inhibition of the prelimbic ...
Abdanipour Alireza - - 2014
Adult neural stem/precursor cells (NSPCs) residing in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus are involved in the memory formations and psychological problems. It is believed that basal levels of glucocorticoids are essential for neuronal development, plasticity, and survival, ...
Jami Mohammad-Saeid - - 2014
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative movement disorder, caused by preferential dopaminergic neuronal cell death in the substantia nigra, a process also influenced by oxidative stress. L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) represents the main treatment route for motor symptoms associated with PD however, its exact mode of action remains unclear. ...
Bekdash Rola R Endocrinology Program, Department of Animal Sciences, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey; Neuroscience Graduate Program, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New - - 2014
Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, one of the major regulators of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, immune functions, and energy homeostasis, are vulnerable to the adverse effects of fetal alcohol exposure (FAE). These effects are manifested in POMC neurons by a decrease in Pomc gene expression, a decrement in the levels of ...
Stagi Massimiliano M Program in Cellular Neuroscience, Neurodegeneration & Repair, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06536, USA; Department of Neurology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, - - 2014
Fronto-temporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 (FTLD-TDP) is a fatal neurodegeneration. TMEM106B variants are linked to FTLD-TDP risk, and TMEM106B is lysosomal. Here, we focus on neuronal TMEM106B, and demonstrate co-localization and traffic with lysosomal LAMP-1. pH-sensitive reporters demonstrate that the TMEM106B C-terminus is lumenal. The TMEM106B N-terminus interacts with endosomal ...
Lau Benjamin K BK Pain Management Research Institute, Kolling Institute for Medical Research, Northern Clinical School, University of Sydney at Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Within the central nervous system, descending systems exist to endogenously modulate our perception of pain. Of particular interest is a descending pathway which projects via the midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG) and rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) to inhibit ascending nociceptive transmission at the spinal cord dorsal horn. This descending PAG-RVM system ...
Oleskiw Timothy D TD University of - - 2014
The mid-level visual cortical area V4 in the primate is thought to be critical for the neural representation of visual shape. Several studies agree that V4 neurons respond to contour features, e.g., convexities and concavities along a shape boundary, that are more complex than the oriented segments encoded by neurons ...
Williams Megan A MA Vanderbilt Brain Institute, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville TN 37232, USA; Neuroscience Program in Substance Abuse, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville TN 37232, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Dopaminergic innervation of the extended amygdala regulates anxiety-like behavior and stress responsivity. A portion of this dopamine input arises from dopamine neurons located in the ventral lateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) and rostral (RLi) and caudal linear nuclei of the raphe (CLi). These neurons receive substantial norepinephrine input, which may prime ...
Lee Junghee - - 2014
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset motor neuron disease characterized by degeneration of motor neuron and glial activation followed by the progressive muscle loss and paralysis. Numerous distinct therapeutic interventions have been examined but currently ALS does not have a cure or an efficacious treatment for the disorder. Glutamate-induced ...
Xu Lu L Department of Anatomy, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, P.O. Box 9101, 6500HB Nijmegen, The - - 2014
The midbrain is a heterogeneous brain structure that serves important roles in feeding regulation, motivation and reward, movement and stress adaptation. One common feature of different midbrain regions is that they all express the long form of leptin receptor (LepRb). Leptin is mainly produced and secreted by white adipose tissue, ...
Corteen Nicole L NL Institute for Biomedical and Biomolecular Sciences, School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Portsmouth, St Michael's Building, White Swan Road, Portsmouth, PO1 2DT, UK, - - 2014
The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) provides the major source of serotonin to the central nervous system (CNS) and modulates diverse neural functions including mood. Furthermore, DRN cellular networks are engaged in the stress-response at the CNS level allowing for adaptive behavioural responses, whilst stress-induced dysregulation of DRN and serotonin release ...
Deng Yu Y Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, North 2nd Road 92, Heping ward, Shenyang, Liaoning, 110001, People's Republic of China, - - 2014
Excessive manganese (Mn) induces oxidative stress and dopaminergic neurodegeneration. However, the relationship between them during Mn neurotoxicity has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the probable role of melatonin (MLT) against Mn-induced motor dysfunction and neuronal loss as a result of antagonizing oxidative stress and ...
Wang Pei P Department of Pharmacology; Second Military Medical University; Shanghai, - - 2014
Autophagy, a highly conserved process conferring cytoprotection against stress, contributes to the progression of cerebral ischemia. β-arrestins are multifunctional proteins that mediate receptor desensitization and serve as important signaling scaffolds involved in numerous physiopathological processes. Here, we show that both ARRB1 (arrestin, β 1) and ARRB2 (arrestin, β 2) were ...
Ma Jun - - 2014
Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a complex disorder that is associated with neuronal loss or dysfunction caused by genetic risks, environmental factors and advanced aging. It has been reported that DJ-1 mutations rendered neurons sensitive to oxidative damage, which led to the onset of familiar PD. However, the molecular mechanism is ...
Lee Choong Hyun CH Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714, South - - 2014
Redd1 (known as RTP801/Dig2/DDIT4) is a stress-induced protein, and it is known to be regulated in response to some stresses including hypoxia and oxidative stress. In the present study, we investigated the time-dependent changes in Redd1 immunoreactivity and its protein levels in the gerbil hippocampus proper (CA1-3 regions) after 5min ...
Yuan Ti-Fei TF School of Psychology, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, China, - - 2014
Stress leads to detrimental effects on brain functions and results in various diseases. Recent studies highlight the involvement of glutamatergic transmission in pathogenesis of depressive behaviors and fears. Acute stress generates different impacts on the excitatory transmission compared to chronic stress. Different neuromodulators and epigenetic factors also participate in the ...
Ju Tz-Chuen TC Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academic Sinica, Taipei 115, - - 2014
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurological disorder that is induced by a CAG trinucleotide expansion in exon 1 of the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. We previously reported that the abnormal activation of an important energy sensor, AMP-activated protein kinase α1 (AMPK-α1), occurs in the brains of mice and patients ...
de Andrade José S JS Department of Biosciences, Federal University of São Paulo, UNIFESP, 11060-001, Santos-SP, - - 2014
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) acts to promote stress-like physiological and behavioral responses and is mainly expressed in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN). Urocortin 1 (Ucn 1) is also a ligand to CRF type 1 and 2 receptors that has been associated with the stress response. Ucn 1 neurons are primarily found ...
Kann Oliver O Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Interdisciplinary Center for Neurosciences (IZN), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, - - 2014
Gamma oscillations (∼30 to 100 Hz) provide a fundamental mechanism of information processing during sensory perception, motor behavior, and memory formation by coordination of neuronal activity in networks of the hippocampus and neocortex. We review the cellular mechanisms of gamma oscillations about the underlying neuroenergetics, i.e., high oxygen consumption rate and ...
Montague Karli K 1 Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, UCL, Queen Square, London, WC1N 3BG, UK2 MRC Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases, Institute of Neurology, UCL, Queen Square, London, WC1N 3BG, - - 2014
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy is an X-linked degenerative motor neuron disease caused by an abnormal expansion in the polyglutamine encoding CAG repeat of the androgen receptor gene. There is evidence implicating endoplasmic reticulum stress in the development and progression of neurodegenerative disease, including polyglutamine disorders such as Huntington's disease ...
Parsanejad Mohammad M Department of Cellular and Molecular - - 2014
DJ-1 (PARK7) is a gene linked to autosomal recessive Parkinson disease (PD). We showed previously that DJ-1 loss sensitizes neurons in models of PD and stroke. However, the biochemical mechanisms underlying this protective role are not completely clear. Here, we identify Von Hippel Lindau (VHL) protein as a critical DJ-1-interacting ...
Pifarré P P Nuclear Medicine Department, CRC-Hospital Quiron, Departament Medicina, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address: - - 2014
A non-pharmacological method to reduce anxiety is "progressive relaxation" (PR). The aim of the method is to reduce mental stress and associated mental processes by means of progressive suppression of muscle tension. The study was addressed to evaluate changes in brain glucose metabolism induced by PR in patients under a ...
Reinders Antje A T S AA Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, King?s College London, United Kingdom; Department of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
Imaging studies in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have shown differing neural network patterns between hypo-aroused/dissociative and hyper-aroused subtypes. Since dissociative identity disorder (DID) involves different emotional states, this study tests whether DID fits aspects of the differing brain-activation patterns in PTSD. While brain activation was monitored using positron emission tomography, ...
Haddad Leila L Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, University of Heidelberg, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim, - - 2014
Urban upbringing has consistently been associated with schizophrenia, but which specific environmental exposures are reflected by this epidemiological observation and how they impact the developing brain to increase risk is largely unknown. On the basis of prior observations of abnormal functional brain processing of social stress in urban-born humans and ...
Siddique Yasir Hasan YH Drosophila Transgenic Laboratory, Section of Genetics, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP, - - 2014
ABSTRACT Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons and aggregation of alpha synuclein (αS) in the brain. The role of epicatechin gallate (EG) was studied on the transgenic Drosophila model of flies expressing normal human alpha synuclein (h-αS) in the neurons. The objectives of the present ...
Yang Rui-Hua RH Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, the Ministry of Education Key Lab of Hazard Assessment and Control in Special Operational Environment, School of Public Health, the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, P.R.China. Electronic address: - - 2014
Accumulating evidence suggested that hyperglycemia played a critical role in hippocampus dysfunction in patients with diabetes mellitus. However, the multifactorial pathogenesis of hyperglycemia induced the impairments of hippocampal neurons has not been fully elucidated. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been shown to enhance learning and memory and affect neural function in ...
Wang Minghui M Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York - - 2014
When facing stress, most individuals are resilient whereas others are prone to developing mood disorders. The brain mechanisms underlying such divergent behavioral responses remain unclear. Here we used the learned helplessness procedure in mice to examine the role of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a brain region highly implicated in ...
Morrison Kathleen E KE Department of Animal Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, - - 2014
Resilience is an active process that involves a discrete set of neural substrates and cellular mechanisms and enables individuals to avoid some of the negative consequences of extreme stress. We have previously shown that dominant individuals show less stress-induced changes in behavior compared to subordinates using a conditioned defeat model ...
Kruk Menno R MR Gorleus Lab, Department of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Academic Center for Drug Research (LACDR), Leiden University, Einsteinweg 55, 2333 CC, Leiden, Netherlands, - - 2014
W.R. Hess' early demonstration of aggressive responses evoked by electrical stimulation in the cat's hypothalamus had a significant impact on the development of psychological and behavioral concepts. Many ideas on behavioral routines, allegedly organized in the brainstem, derive from his observation. Similar responses have since been evoked from the hypothalamus ...
Dannlowski Udo U Department of Psychiatry, University of Münster, Münster, Germany; Department of Psychiatry, University of Marburg, Marburg, - - 2014
The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 polymorphisms in its gene (SLC6A4) have been associated with depression, increased stress-response, and brain structural alterations such as reduced hippocampal volumes. Recently, epigenetic processes including SLC6A4 promoter methylation were shown to be affected by stress, trauma, or maltreatment and are regarded to be ...
Kim Hyejin - - 2014
Glucocorticoid released by stressful stimuli elicits various stress responses. Acute treatment with a single dose of corticosterone (CORT; predominant glucocorticoid of rats) alone has previously been shown to trigger anxiety behavior and robust dendritic hypertrophy of neurons in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are ...
Meng Yajing Y West China Mental Health Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China; State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, Psychiatric Laboratory, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, - - 2014
Evidence from previous anatomical studies indicate that widespread brain regions are involved in the pathogenesis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of the present study was to quantitatively integrate the literature on structural abnormalities seen on individuals with PTSD. Twenty voxel-based analysis studies were analysed through a comprehensive series ...
Nirmaladevi D D Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Bangalore University, Jnanabarathi Campus, Bangalore, Karnataka, - - 2014
The generation of free radicals and oxidative stress has been linked to several neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The use of free radical scavenging molecules for the reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species is one of the strategies used in the clinical ...
Banihashemi Layla L Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 Labst94@pitt.edu - - 2014
Early life experience differentially shapes later stress reactivity, as evidenced by both animal and human studies. However, early experience-related changes in the structure and function of central visceral neural circuits that control stress responses have not been well characterized, particularly in humans. The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), bed ...
Iyirhiaro Grace O GO University of Ottawa, - - 2014
Inappropriate activation of cell cycle proteins, in particular cyclin D/Cdk4, is implicated in neuronal death induced by various pathologic stresses including DNA damage and ischemia. Key targets of Cdk4 in proliferating cells include members of the E2F transcription factors which mediate the expression of cell cycle proteins as well as ...
Short Sarah J SJ Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Population variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity and reactivity was assessed in a healthy sample of 48 juvenile rhesus monkeys. Cluster analysis of the HPA profiles revealed four distinct neuroendocrine phenotypes based on six indices of HPA functioning. Behavioral reactivity was also evaluated in response to novel stimuli, and revealed marked ...
Shi Lv L CAS Key Laboratory of Brain Function and Diseases, School of Life Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027, Anhui, - - 2014
Elderly females, particularly those carrying the apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-ε4 allele, have a higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the underlying mechanism for this increased susceptibility remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of the ApoE genotype and gender on the proteome of synaptosomes. We isolated synaptosomes ...
Miller James A JA Center for Environmental Medicine, Colorado State University, - - 2014
Predicting seizurogenic properties of pharmacologically active compounds is difficult due to the complex nature of the mechanisms involved and because of the low sensitivity and high variability associated with current behavioral-based methods. To identify early neuronal signaling events predictive of seizure, we exposed transgenic NF-κB/EGFP reporter mice to multiple low ...
Longden Thomas A TA Departments of Pharmacology and Psychology, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT - - 2014
Studies of stress effects on the brain have traditionally focused on neurons, without considering the cerebral microcirculation. Here we report that stress impairs neurovascular coupling (NVC), the process that matches neuronal activity with increased local blood flow. A stressed phenotype was induced in male rats by administering a 7-d heterotypical ...
Patel Vivek P VP Department of Pathology, Division of Neuropathology, 3550 Terrace St., University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA; Center for Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The microtubule (MT) system is important for many aspects of neuronal function, including motility, differentiation, and cargo trafficking. Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with increased oxidative stress and alterations in the integrity of the axodendritic tree. To study dynamic mechanisms underlying the neurite shortening phenotype observed in many PD models, ...
Lkhagvasuren B B Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582, - - 2014
The anxiolytic diazepam selectively inhibits psychological stress-induced autonomic and behavioral responses without causing noticeable suppression of other central performances. This pharmacological property of diazepam led us to the idea that neurons that exhibit diazepam-sensitive, psychological stress-induced activation are potentially those recruited for stress responses. To obtain neuroanatomical clues for the ...
Ryu Sangwoo S Department of Neuroscience, School of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, 136-705, Republic of - - 2014
Trans-anethole has been studied on pharmacological properties such as anti-inflammation, anti-oxidative stress, antifungal and anticancer. However, to date, the anti-ischemic effects of trans-anethole have not been assessed. Therefore, we investigated the neuroprotection of trans-anethole against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R)-induced cortical neuronal cell injury, an in vitro model of ischemia. The abilities ...
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