Search Results
Results 1 - 50 of 1841
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Erisken Sinem S Werner Reichardt Centre for Integrative Neuroscience, University of Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen, Germany; Graduate Training Centre of Neuroscience, University of Tübingen, 72074 Tübingen, - - 2014
Neural responses in visual cortex depend not only on sensory input but also on behavioral context. One such context is locomotion, which modulates single-neuron activity in primary visual cortex (V1). How locomotion affects neuronal populations across cortical layers and in precortical structures is not well understood. We performed extracellular multielectrode ...
Yin Ming M School of Engineering, Brown University, 184 Hope Street, Providence, RI 02912, - - 2014
Brain recordings in large animal models and humans typically rely on a tethered connection, which has restricted the spectrum of accessible experimental and clinical applications. To overcome this limitation, we have engineered a compact, lightweight, high data rate wireless neurosensor capable of recording the full spectrum of electrophysiological signals from the ...
Cardoso Armando A Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319, Porto, Portugal, - - 2014
Caloric restriction is able to delay age-related neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive impairment. In this study, we analyzed the effects of old-onset caloric restriction that started at 18 months of age, in the number of neuropeptide Y (NPY)- and somatostatin (SS)-containing neurons of the hippocampal formation. Knowing that these neuropeptidergic systems seem ...
Sadigh-Eteghad Saeed S Neurosciences Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, - - 2014
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia which affects people older than 60 years of age. In AD, the dysregulation of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) level leads to the appearance of senile plaques which contain Aβ depositions. Aβ is a complex biological molecule which interacts with many types ...
Mravec B B Institute of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Sasinkova 2, 813 72 Bratislava, Slovak Republic. - - 2014
Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents the most prevalent form of dementia in the elderly. However, the pathological mechanisms underlying the development and progression of AD are only partially understood. To date, the accumulated clinical and experimental evidence indicate that the locus coeruleus (LC), the main source of brain's norepinephrine, represents "the ...
Fawver J N - - 2014
Amyloid formation is the pathological hallmark of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). These diseases are marked by extracellular amyloid deposits of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) in the pancreas and amyloid β (Aβ) in the brain. Since IAPP may enter the brain and disparate amyloids can cross-seed each ...
Rash J E JE Department of Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, United States; Program in Molecular, Cellular and Integrative Neurosciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
Gap junctions provide for direct intercellular electrical and metabolic coupling. The abundance of gap junctions at "large myelinated club ending (LMCE)" synapses on Mauthner cells (M-cells) of the teleost brain provided a convenient model to correlate anatomical and physiological properties of electrical synapses. There, presynaptic action potentials were found to ...
Frauscher Birgit B Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University, 3801 University Street, Montreal H3A 2B4, Canada; Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Neurology, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria. Electronic address: - - 2014
In humans, the knowledge of intracranial correlates of spindles is mainly gathered from noninvasive neurophysiologic and functional imaging studies which provide an indirect estimate of neuronal intracranial activity. This potential limitation can be overcome by intracranial electroencephalography used in presurgical epilepsy evaluation. We investigated the intracranial correlates of scalp spindles ...
Basilious Alfred A Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, - - 2014
This review explores the molecular, neurological, and behavioural outcomes in animal models of uterine artery ligation. We analyse the relevance of this type of model to the pathological and functional phenotypes that are consistent with cerebral palsy and its developmental comorbidities in humans. A literature search of the PubMed database ...
Hernández-Andrade E E Dirección de Investigación Clínica. Electronic address: - - 2014
Fetal intrauterine growth restriction generates chronic hypoxia due to placental insufficiency. Despite the hemodynamic process of blood flow, redistributions are taking place in key organs such as the fetal brain during intrauterine growth restriction, in order to maintain oxygen and nutrients supply. The risk of short- and long-term neurological effects ...
Schomburg Erik W EW New York University Neuroscience Institute and Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY 10016, USA; Department of Physics and Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, - - 2014
Precisely how rhythms support neuronal communication remains obscure. We investigated interregional coordination of gamma oscillations using high-density electrophysiological recordings in the rat hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. We found that 30-80 Hz gamma dominated CA1 local field potentials (LFPs) on the descending phase of CA1 theta waves during navigation, with 60-120 Hz gamma ...
Wang Lina L Department of Pathology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA; Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, - - 2014
The normal functions and pathologic facets of the small presynaptic protein α-synuclein (α-syn) are of exceptional interest. In previous studies, we found that α-syn attenuates synaptic exo/endocytosis [1, 2]; however, underlying mechanisms remain unknown. More recent evidence suggests that α-syn exists as metastable multimers and not solely as a natively ...
Boillot Morgane M 1 INSERM, U 1127, F-75013, Paris, France 2 CNRS, UMR 7225, F-75013, Paris, France 3 Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR S 1127, ICM, F-75013 Paris, France 4 Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière (ICM), F-75013, Paris, - - 2014
Leucin-rich, glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) is a secreted protein linked to human seizures of both genetic and autoimmune aetiology. Mutations in the LGI1 gene are responsible for autosomal dominant temporal lobe epilepsy with auditory features, whereas LGI1 autoantibodies are involved in limbic encephalitis, an acquired epileptic disorder associated with cognitive ...
Zheng Dan D Key Laboratory of Drug Targeting and Drug Delivery Systems, Ministry of Education, West China School of Pharmacy , Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan , People's Republic of China - - 2014
Abstract Tarenflurbil (R-flurbiprofen) was acknowledged as a promising candidate in Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapy. However, the Phase III study of tarenflurbil was extremely restricted by its poor delivery efficiency to the brain. To tackle this problem, the novel carriers for tarenflurbil, racemic flurbiprofen (FLU) derivatives (FLU-D1 and FLU-D2) modified by ...
Toyoda Hiroki H Department of Neuroscience and Oral Physiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, - - 2014
We previously demonstrated that the deletion of phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein-1/2 (PRIP-1/2) enhances the desensitization of GABAA receptors (GABAARs), while it facilitates their resensitization at the offset of GABA puff, causing a hump-like tail current (tail-I) in layer 3 (L3) pyramidal cells (PCs) of the barrel cortex. In the ...
Zagrebelsky Marta M TU Braunschweig, Zoological Institute, Div. Cellular Neurobiology, Braunschweig, - - 2014
Nogo-A interaction with its different receptors (NgR1, S1PR2, PirB) restricts plasticity and growth-dependent processes leading, via the activation of different signaling pathway to the stabilization of the neuronal networks (either developmentally or during processes of memory consolation in the mature nervous system). Taking away these molecular brakes might allow for ...
Liu Yi Y China- America Joint Institute of Neuroscience, CAJIN, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; Neuroprotection Research Laboratory, Departments of Radiology and Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, - - 2014
Hypoxic preconditioning elicits resistance to more drastic subsequent insults, which potentially provide neuroprotective therapeutic strategy, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we examined the effects of hypoxic preconditioning on synaptic ultrastructure in olfactory bulb of mice. Mice underwent up to 5 cycles of repeated hypoxic preconditioning ...
Ye Wenrui W Department of Physiology, and Pharmacology. University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX - - 2014
We studied development of the fetal serotonergic central nervous system in a baboon, non-human primate model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Fetal (90% of full-term) IUGR brains were comparable in size to controls, but have reduced expression of serotonergic proteins and mRNAs, as well as having fewer serotonergic neurons.
Ridgway Sam H SH National Marine Mammal Foundation, San Diego, Calif., - - 2014
Among cetaceans, killer whales and sperm whales have the widest distribution in the world's oceans. Both species use echolocation, are long-lived, and have the longest periods of gestation among whales. Sperm whales dive much deeper and much longer than killer whales. It has long been thought that sperm whales have ...
McKnight Katherine K Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, - - 2014
Environmental exposures affect gamete function and fertility, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that pheromones sensed by ciliated neurons in the Caenorhabditis elegans nose alter the lipid microenvironment within the oviduct, thereby affecting sperm motility. In favorable environments, pheromone-responsive sensory neurons secrete a transforming growth factor-β ligand ...
Kruminis-Kaszkiel Ewa E Department of Phatophysiology, - - 2014
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a multifactorial progressive neurodegenerative disorder leading to severe disability and death within 3-5 years after diagnosis. The main mechanisms underlying the disease progression are poorly known but according to the current knowledge, neuroinflammation is a key player in motor neurons damage. Astrocytes constitute an important cell ...
Goodwin Denise D Pacific University College of Optometry, Forest Grove, OR, - - 2014
Stroke is the most common cause of homonymous hemianopia (HH) in adults, followed by trauma and tumors. Associated signs and symptoms, as well as visual field characteristics such as location and congruity, can help determine the location of the causative brain lesion. HH can have a significant effect on quality ...
Mysoet Julien J Université Lille Nord de France, Lille, France; « Physical Activity, Muscle and Health » laboratory, EA 4488, IFR 114, Université Lille 1, Sciences et Technologies, Villeneuve d'Ascq, - - 2014
A chronic reduction in neuromuscular activity through prolonged body immobilization in human alters motor task performance through a combination of peripheral and central factors. Studies performed in a rat model of sensorimotor restriction have shown functional and biochemical changes in sensorimotor cortex. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Interest ...
Tayler Timothy D - - 2012
Innate behaviors are often executed in concert with accompanying physiological programs. How this coordination is achieved is poorly understood. Mating behavior and the transfer of sperm and seminal fluid (SSFT) provide a model for understanding how concerted behavioral and physiological programs are coordinated. Here we identify a male-specific neural pathway ...
McEwen Bruce S BS Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10065, USA. - - 2012
The adult brain is capable of considerable structural and functional plasticity and the study of hormone actions in brain has contributed to our understanding of this important phenomenon. In particular, stress and stress-related hormones such as glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids play a key role in the ability of acute and chronic ...
Palit Somnath - - 2012
Human defecation involves integrated and coordinated sensorimotor functions, orchestrated by central, spinal, peripheral (somatic and visceral), and enteric neural activities, acting on a morphologically intact gastrointestinal tract (including the final common path, the pelvic floor, and anal sphincters). The multiple factors that ultimately result in defecation are best appreciated by ...
Choi Dong-Hee DH Neurology/Neuroscience Department, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York, - - 2012
Oxidative stress has long been considered as a major contributing factor in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. However, molecular sources for reactive oxygen species in Parkinson's disease have not been clearly elucidated. Herein, we sought to investigate whether a superoxide-producing NADPH oxidases (NOXs) are implicated in oxidative stress-mediated dopaminergic neuronal ...
Nam Jin Han - - 2012
Aims The present study examined whether Aβ1-42 can induce endogenous expression of interleukin-13 (IL-13) or (IL-4) within activated microglia in the rat hippocampus in vivo. We further investigated whether these cytokines mediate ROS/RNS generation through activation of NADPH oxidase and/or inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and thus contribute to the ...
Ansell Emily B EB Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06519, - - 2012
Cumulative adversity and stress are associated with risk of psychiatric disorders. While basic science studies show repeated and chronic stress effects on prefrontal and limbic neurons, human studies examining cumulative stress and effects on brain morphology are rare. Thus, we assessed whether cumulative adversity is associated with differences in gray ...
Häring M - - 2012
An adequate emotional response to stress is essential for survival and requires the fine-tuned regulation of several distinct neuronal circuits. Therefore, a precise control of these circuits is necessary to prevent behavioral imbalances. During the last decade, numerous investigations have evidenced that the endocannabinoid (eCB) system is able to crucially ...
Then Sue-Mian - - 2012
Down syndrome (DS) neurons are more susceptible to oxidative stress and previous studies have shown that vitamin E was able to reduce oxidative stress and improve DS neurons' viability. Therefore, this study was done to investigate the protective role of γ-tocotrienol (γT3) in DS neurons from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) -induced ...
Curtis Andre L AL Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United - - 2012
The norepinephrine nucleus, locus coeruleus (LC), has been implicated in cognitive aspects of the stress response, in part through its regulation by the stress-related neuropeptide, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). LC neurons discharge in tonic and phasic modes that differentially modulate attention and behavior. Here, the effects of exposure to an ethologically ...
Tokunaga Shinji - - 2011
Ischemia elicits a variety of stress responses in neuronal cells, which result in cell death. wld(S) Mice bear a mutation that significantly delays Wallerian degeneration. This mutation also protects all neuronal cells against other types of stresses resulting in cell death, including ischemia. To clarify the types of stresses that ...
Ramkumar K - - 2011
The mammalian prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been implicated in a variety of motivational and emotional processes underlying working memory, attention and decision making. The PFC receives dopaminergic projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and contains high density of D1 and D2 receptors and these projections are important in higher ...
Gaszner B - - 2011
Pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been implicated in the (patho)physiology of stress-adaptation. PACAP deficient (PACAP(-/-)) mice show altered anxiety levels and depression-like behavior, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms in stress-related brain areas. Therefore, we aimed at investigating PACAP(-/-) mice in light-dark box, marble burying, open field, ...
Xu Lu - - 2011
The continuously changing environment demands for adequate stress responses to maintain the internal dynamic equilibrium of body and mind. A successful stress response requires energy, in an amount matching the severity of the stressor and the type of response ('fight, flight or freeze'). The stress response is generated by the ...
Yamashiro K - - 2011
The application of tape has been widely used for many years by physiotherapists to deal with variety of sports disorders. However, it remains unclear whether the tape application affects the sensory input to somatosensory cortex. Therefore, the objective of this study is to clarify the effect of taping using somatosensory ...
Miklós Ildikó H - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Chronic stress in humans precipitates hyper-reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and triggers symptoms associated with certain forms of depression. Reorganization of neuronal networks has been implicated in development of depression, however it remained unknown how chronic exposure to psychogenic challenges affects excitatory and inhibitory inputs to corticotropin-releasing hormone ...
Elfrink Hyung Lim - - 2011
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a stress response of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the first compartment of the secretory pathway. The UPR is activated in non-tangle bearing neurons in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, indicating it is an early phenomenon. We found that the level of Rab6, implicated in anterograde ...
Mychasiuk Richelle - - 2011
The current study used stereological techniques in combination with Golg-Cox methods to examine the neuroanatomical alterations in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of developing offspring exposed to gestational stress. Morphological changes in dendritic branching, length, and spine density, were examined at weaning along with changes in actual numbers of neurons. ...
Ricci Serafino - - 2011
Increasing evidence has been accumulating about the role of stress as an important challenge to the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The hippocampus, one of the areas of the brain damaged during AD, was the first brain region, besides the hypothalamus, to be recognized as a target of ...
Hermans Erno J - - 2011
Acute stress shifts the brain into a state that fosters rapid defense mechanisms. Stress-related neuromodulators are thought to trigger this change by altering properties of large-scale neural populations throughout the brain. We investigated this brain-state shift in humans. During exposure to a fear-related acute stressor, responsiveness and interconnectivity within a ...
Pan Chunliu - - 2011
Stroke (hypoxia) is one of the leading causes of mortality in the developed countries, and it can induce excessive glutamate release and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Taurine, as a free amino acid, present in high concentrations in a range of organs in mammals, can provide protection against multiple neurological diseases. ...
Huang Xiumei X Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Neurodegenerative Disease and Aging Research, College of Medicine, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, - - 2012
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides in the brain, inducing neuronal cell death and microglial activation. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been proposed to be a mediator of Aβ neurotoxicity. In this study, we test whether salubrinal, an ER stress inhibitor, can protect against ...
Fokidis H Bobby - - 2011
The neuropeptide arginine vasotocin (AVT: the avian homolog of vasopressin) has numerous functional roles including mediating social behaviors, coregulating the adrenocortical stress response and maintaining water balance. These functions of AVT make it susceptible to environmental influence, yet little is understood concerning the variation in the AVT system across habitats. ...
McManus Meagan J MJ Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, The University of Georgia College of Pharmacy, Athens, Georgia 30602, - - 2011
Considerable evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress contribute to the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We examined the ability of the novel mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ (mitoquinone mesylate: [10-(4,5-dimethoxy-2-methyl-3,6-dioxo-1,4-cycloheexadienl-yl) decyl triphenylphosphonium methanesulfonate]) to prevent AD-like pathology in mouse cortical neurons in cell culture and in a triple transgenic mouse ...
Badowska-Szalewska E - - 2011
This study aimed at examining and comparing the influence of two different stress stimuli on the density (number of cells/mm(2)) of nerve growth factor (NGF) containing neurons in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cell layers and the dentate gyrus (DG) granule cell layer in juvenile rats (P28; P-postnatal day). ...
Krause Eric G EG Department of Pharmacodynamics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA. - - 2011
This study elucidates the neural circuits by which circulating angiotensin II (ANGII) acts in the brain to influence humoral and behavioral responses to psychological stressors. To test the hypothesis that systemic ANGII mediates stress responding via the subfornical organ (SFO), we first found that the timing of increased systemic ANGII ...
Lkhagvasuren Battuvshin - - 2011
Psychological stress-induced hyperthermia is a fundamental autonomic response in mammals. However, the central circuitry underlying this stress response is poorly understood. Here, we sought to identify sympathetic premotor neurons that mediate a hyperthermic response to social defeat stress, a psychological stress model. Intruder rats that were defeated by a dominant ...
Martinowich Keri - - 2012
Stress is causally associated with anxiety. Although the underlying cellular mechanisms are not well understood, the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons have been implicated in stress response. p75(NTR) is a panneurotrophin receptor expressed almost exclusively in basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in adult brain. This study investigated whether and how p75(NTR), via ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
真钱扎金花